The Urdu written and spoken in India is archaic and has a lot of Hindi influence. There are two major schools in India namely “Dilli-wala” and “Lakhnavi.” These two areas are said to be the places where Urdu began and flourished giving rise to some excellent literature in Urdu.
In India, Urdu is one of the 22 Scheduled Languages recognised by the Indian Constitution, as well as being on the list of official languages in several Indian states. Since Pakistan became an independent country, it focussed all energies on promoting Urdu. In this country, Urdu is the national language, as well as being one of the official languages (along with English).
Urdu is written from right to left, and most of its letters connect to the letters preceding and following them. Letters often change shape depending on their placement within a word. Urdu is usually written using only consonants and long vowels, although there are small marks which can be used above or below letters to indicate short vowels.